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DOCUMENT VERIFICATION SYSTEM USING BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY

THE STUDY OF THE LEGAL PROBLEM

Blockchain is a cryptographically secured, decentralized register of certain events on the basis of which a database is built, and each subsequent event affects its state. Blockchain technology provides the ability to authenticate documents sent physically. The use of multi-level authentication and signing of documents using Blockchain network is an innovative solution that opens new opportunities for secure and integral exchange of documents between different entities while ensuring their authenticity and invariability. The unquestionable advantage of using this solution is its decentralized character, allowing to omit the institution issuing the document and any other third parties, moreover:

– enables certainty of trading in electronic documents;

– facilitates auditing the institution (even remotely);

– prevents forgery of documents;

– makes it possible to track all modifications of a document over time; and

– ensures undeniable identification of the person/institution making each modification. 

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GENETICALLY MODIFIED INSECT TO CONTROL NATURAL POPULATION AS A BIOCIDAL PRODUCT? IS EVERY GENETIC BIOTECHNOLOGY LEGAL?

INTRODUCTION TO THE MARKET OF BIOCIDAL PRODUCTS IN POLAND IN THE LIGHT OF EUROPEAN UNION REGULATIONS IN THE ASPECT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

DEFINITION OF BIOCIDES

GENETICALLY MODIFIED INSECT TO CONTROL NATURAL POPULATION AS A BIOCIDAL PRODUCT

Legal definition of the term “biocidal product” placed on the market is obvious. This definition is provided in Article 3.1 of the Regulation (EU) No 528/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2012. Under EU law, a biocidal product is, in principle, “any substance or mixture, in the form in which it is supplied to the user, consisting of, containing or generating one or more active substances, intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, prevent the action of, or otherwise exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by any means other than mere physical or mechanical action (…)”.

Thus, in relation to the basic core of the legal definition, a biocidal product is therefore understood as a product with a basic biocidal function.

This issue is also addressed by the Polish Act of 9 October 2015 on biocidal products. It mainly stipulates the conditions for using and making biocidal products available on the Polish market and the authority responsible for the application of Regulation 528/2012, i.e. the President of the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products.

FIRST GENETICALLY MODIFIED MOSQUITOES IN THE USA

A very interesting example of the introduction of genetically modified organisms is the mosquito released in the United States, on which the biotechnology company Oxitec conducted research. It was about a ten-year battle for permission to carry out the experiment. The main reason for such a long process were the protests of Florida residents who feared the bites of the new insects and the disruption of the ecosystem. The whole experiment involves releasing a bioengineered male mosquito to copulate with wild females, which transmit many diseases through their bites, including yellow fever, dengue and the Zika virus.

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Polish Draft law on clinical trials of medicinal products for human use – what is the aim of the Polish legislator, what changes Polish legislator plans to introduce and what is their justification

The Polish draft law on clinical trials of medicinal products for human use was sent for public consultations on 30 April 2021 and is still waiting for the final wording.

This project aims to bring the current legislation into line with the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which aims to ensure the safety of people who take part in clinical trials, to simplify and speed up the authorisation procedures for such trials, which are a key part of the process of developing new medicines and improving treatment with existing medicines.

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Polish property in insolvency estate in the light of the Regulation (EU) 2015/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2015 on insolvency proceedings

Applicable regulations

The bankruptcy cases are regulated in Poland majorly by the Insolvency Act of 2003 (in Polish: Ustawa z dnia 28 lutego 2003 r. Prawo upadłościowe (t.j. Dz. U. z 2020 r. poz. 1228 z późn. zm.)) (later: ‘Insolvency Act of 2003’). Yet it is not the only applicable regulation. In cases of cross-border bankruptcy proceedings or cases where a Polish citizen is adjudged bankrupt in the territory of the Member State of the European Union or Ireland, the bankruptcy proceedings are regulated by the Regulation (EU) 2015/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2015 on insolvency proceedings (OJ L 141, 5.6.2015, p. 19-72) (later: ‘Regulation 2015/848’).

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“IMPACT’21 – A CHANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT FOR YOU AND YOUR BUSINESS”

On May 12-13, 2021, Małgorzata Kiełtyka and Jakub Gładkowski from KG LEGAL Kiełtyka Gładkowski participated in IMPACT’21.

Energy transformation, green economy, the National Reconstruction Plan, the development of local e-commerce, the prospects of the banking sector and the expansion of digital banking were just some of the topics discussed during the event. Speakers talked about the health care system, the development of the cryptocurrency market and cybersecurity. As part of the paths: Sport and Art, it was possible to talk about the management and economic realities of the Polish sports sector as well as investment trends in art in Poland. In a separate path entitled Women Empowerment there was discussed the role of women in business and the fight against discrimination. In terms of the digital future, the speakers talked about technological innovations in 2021, the impact of 5G on the global economy and the issue of whether Asia will remain a key player in the race of technological innovations.

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