The transfer of rights resulting from permission to use the environment

Caring for the state of the environment is one of the sentences of the state. Hence, the legislator imposes a statutory requirement on entrepreneurs to obtain a permit to issue emissions generated during the production of pollutants. Pawel Dyrduł, lawyer from law office KG Legal Kiełtyka Gładkowski Sp.p with its registered office in Krakow, discusses the issue of transfer of rights expressed in the permit to use the environment.

Permission to use the environment

The issue of obtaining a permit to use the environment has been regulated in the Act of 2001 Environmental Protection Law (Journal of Laws 2017.519 i.e. of 2017.03.13). It is generally accepted that the installations or equipment installed in the company affect the environment. The principle of operation of the installation, expressed in Art. 144 of the Environmental Protection Law stipulates that it should not cause the environmental quality standards to be exceeded. Putting into the environment substances or energy (gases or dusts into the air, sewage to water or to ground, waste generation) requires a permit, which is called a permit to use the environment. It appears at the request of the interested party. It is issued by an environmental authority competent for the place of business, causing the introduction of substances or energy into the environment for a period of 10 years with the possibility of extension for another 10 years.



The detective report is increasingly being used as evidence in ongoing cases. In family law, business law or in matters related to matter governed by the Hague Convention. Arrangements made by a professional third party may prove to be crucial and often augment the evidence in the process.

Performing detective services is a fully legal activity, described in the Act of 6 July 2001 on detective services. (Journal of Laws of 2017, item 556) (“Detective Services Act”), which states that it consists in obtaining, processing and acquiring information about persons or objects. Detective, according to Art. 13 of the Detective Services Act is required to produce a written report or a title report and hand it over to the employer. The report, as set out in the Act, should include a description of the facts of the case under investigation, the date of commencement and termination of activities, and the scope and conduct of the actions taken.

The evaluation of the legality of the report as evidence is based on both procedural and substantive law. A number of restrictions have been imposed on a detective, for example, he must have a license, he can only provide services on the basis of an agreement with a person involved in a particular case, his services are subject to freedom of establishment. During doing activities, he must act within the limits of the law – ethical principles and due diligence apply. He can make a documentary photograph only during the day, in a public place, and it is forbidden to use illegal means of obtaining information, such as eavesdropping. He cannot violate applicable laws and freedoms nor is it permitted to use methods reserved for law enforcement or special services, such as the Police. Regulations of the protection of personal data also apply.

Proof of the report is admissible by the competent court, but court may refuse to admit them on the basis of their origin, e.g. if evidence has been found in violation of the law. It is treated as evidence from a private document, and according to the Supreme Court ruling of 30 June 2004, “evidence from a private document is an independent means of proof which the court judges in accordance with the principles set out in Article. 233 § 1 c.p.c. “(IV CK 474/03). It is also possible to appoint a detective as a witness, but it is important to remember that a detective is required to keep a secret about the source of the information or the circumstances of the case and release him from such secrecy can only be based on the principles stated in the Code of Criminal Procedure.





Complete the cooperation with the manager with the rights of hybrids: 1) the procurator and 2) the contract of employment as a director

Very often, the management of capital companies in Poland daily is living abroad. Thus, the problem of day-to-day management of the company and the operation of the company in relation to third parties arises.


Liquidation of a branch of a foreign entrepreneur in Poland

Poland’s accession to the European Union, the development of cross-border activity of enterprises, and the desire to enter new markets contribute to the opening of branches of foreign entrepreneurs on the Polish market. For this reason, the issue of terminating the business in Poland is interesting. Pawel Dyrduł, lawyer from law office KG Legal Kiełtyka Gładkowski Sp.p with its registered office in Krakow, discusses the problem of liquidation of a branch of a foreign entrepreneur in Poland.

Freedom of establishment

Foreign entrepreneurs, under the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (Articles 49, 51, 54), may establish branches, agencies, subsidiaries, etc. in the Member States. Poland can not affect the restriction of the freedom of establishment of nationals of other Member States. Exceptionally, freedom of establishment does not apply in cases where conducting a given activity by a foreign entrepreneur in Poland would be, at least temporarily, connected with the exercise of official authority. Entrepreneurship entitlement is granted to them in relation to any type of business activity – civil and commercial law, cooperative, etc.


The most popular forms of financing business activity in Poland

Doing business in Poland is becoming more and more common. Both citizens and foreign investors are making the decision to start their business. Therefore, it is worth to briefly discuss the most popular forms of business financing available on the Polish market. The characteristics of these forms are made by Paweł Dyrduł, lawyer from KG Legal Kiełtyka Gładkowski Sp.p with its registered office in Cracow.

Division of forms of financing

Forms of financing business activity can be divided in terms of many criteria. However, the basic division is the division into internal forms and external forms. As the name implies, internal financing is based on increasing the capital of an enterprise by looking inside it. External financing is, in turn, the conclusion of contracts with entities operating on the market, which, under appropriate conditions, agree to make available to the enterprise financial means for running a business.