Pursuant to Art. 7 (2) of the Act on package travel and linked travel arrangements, there is an obligation to conclude an insurance contract in a specific amount. This provision provides that statutory obligations are fulfilled by tour operators and entrepreneurs facilitating linked travel arrangements by:
1) conclusion of a bank guarantee or an insurance guarantee in accordance with the template form and the provisions specifying the minimum amount of the guarantee sum or
2) conclusion of an insurance contract for travelers inaccordance with the form template and the provisions specifying the minimum amount of the sum insured, or
3) concluding a contract for a travel escrow account in accordance with the model of this contract and accepting travellers’ payments only to this account, if they provide package travel or facilitate the purchase of linked travel arrangements provided only on the territory of the Republic of Poland;
4) making timely payments of contributions in the due amount to the Tourist Guarantee Fund.
PPP is a legal institution introduced into the Polish legal order in 2008 by the Public-Private Partnership Act, which regulates the issues discussed below. To put it simply, a public-private partnership consists in the joint implementation of a project by a private partner and a public entity. It is based on a long-term agreement (which is concluded for 30 or longer) specifying the division of tasks and risks between the two cooperating parties.
Sukuk is a financial bond that complies with Islamic religious law commonly known as Sharia. The traditional Western interest-paying bond structure is prohibited in the Islamic law because the riba, or interest debt, goes against precepts of Islam. Therefore, the Islamic countries and investors need a structure to link the returns and cash flows of debt financing to a specific asset being purchased, effectively distributing the benefits of that asset. In order to do that, in Malaysia, the sukuk was created twenty three years ago and, since then, it has become extremely popular in Islamic finance.
Sukuk represents aggregate and undivided shares of ownership in a tangible asset as it relates to a specific project or a specific investment activity. An investor in sukuk, therefore, does not own a debt obligation owed by the bond issuer, but instead owns a piece of the asset that’s linked to the investment. This means that sukuk holders, unlike bond holders, receive a portion of the earnings generated by the associated asset. Hence, financing can only be raised for identifiable asset, this means an asset whose commercial value can be measured.
We are now in Poland on the verge of crucial changes in the labour law. However, despite the supposedly revolutionary changes in the supervision and enforcement of employee duties, Polish labour law will not still, in its standard wording of the Polish Labour Code, indicate precisely the definition and scope of the general due diligence of the employee’s duties.
Therefore, it will be timely to create a contractual framework, because the employer should make an agreement with the employee in a written or confirmed letter at the latest on the day of starting work, indicating, among other aspects, what is precisely the duty of the employee.