Publication date: January 11, 2024

The President of the Polish Office of Competition and Consumer Protection announced the imposition of a fine of over PLN 1.5 million on one of international companies operating in Poland. The company allegedly used the so-called dark patterns, or more precisely, automatically added products to customers’ baskets in online shopping.

Dark Patterns – what are they?


A work generated by AI and copyright – new case law

Publication date: December 20, 2023

With the development of technology, artificial intelligence began to impact almost all areas of our lives, starting from performing tedious simple tasks, it has developed to the point that it is able to create art, including graphics and music. With this progress, new issues and problems arise related to this AI activity. One of the main current problems is the question of who holds the copyright to works created in this way and whether such works are covered by copyright protection at all. Questions arise such as: can artificial intelligence be considered a creator? Do works created by artificial intelligence have copyright? What human contribution is sufficient for copyright protection of a work? Who is the creator of the work and who should have the copyright?

US Court ruling regarding works generated by artificial intelligence


CASP (crypto-asset service providers)

Publication date: December 18, 2023

Legal status of crypto money and cryptocurrency exchanges without financial authorities supervision – Polish and global perspective.

The concept of creating a decentralized electronic payment system was created in the 1990s, but this movement gained momentum during the last financial crisis, which peaked in 2008-2009. Cryptocurrencies are a form of decentralized digital money based on blockchain technology. As an introduction, it is worth mentioning that the first cryptocurrency to enjoy increasing popularity was Bitcoin. The date of its creation and the beginning of the growing popularity of virtual currencies is set at 2009. Even before the appearance of the first Polish cryptocurrency exchanges, there was a Polish currency exchange office operating on the market, allowing the exchange of digital currencies. The first bitcoin exchange was established in 2010, but like many others, it did not stand the test of time.


Use of blockchain in business: cryptocurrencies

Publication date: December 13, 2023

Explanation and blockchain in cryptocurrencies

Being one of the most popular topic of the last years in technology, blockchain offers great perspectives but still remains often seen as vague, complicated matter. Not going into details, it can be surely stated that it is not as complicated as it may seem, both in understanding and especially in application. In a nutshell, blockchain is a technology which secures sharing of information, storing data in a digital database on a distributed ledger of blocks. It allows mostly to record transactions or track assets of various kinds. Importantly, it runs completely online but is properly secured: all information stored is cryptographically coded and to access specific data you need to use your own, private key which is authenticated by network.

That being said, the most important application for blockchain is now cryptocurrency, the most known being bitcoin. The very existence and operation of crypto depend on the blockchain technology. Nowadays, it is not just growing popularity of fashionable crypto assets but an actual growth in the use of this technology in business. In 2022, there were estimated 2,353 businesses in the US accepting bitcoin and the number is believed to grow. Cryptocurrencies are being used by different brands, for different purposes: from purchasing tickets or non-fungible tokens to even buying real estate. The scope of possibilities may be not unlimited but certainly is bound to be increasingly broader.


Machine learning, neural networks and gene therapies in the new approach of the Polish Patent Office

Publication date: December 6, 2023

Polish industrial property law provides for the protection of intangible assets that have industrial applications. One of the possible subjective rights that protect the rights of the owner of intangible property is a patent, which is granted for an invention and gives the exclusive right to use it for profit, professionally and as a subject of legal transactions.