Polish National Certification Centre is an organisation which runs a list of
trust services providers and qualified electronic signatures accepted in
Poland. The legal frames of this institution functioning is provided by the Act
of 5 September 2016 on Trust Services and Electronic Identification.
the article 2 of this Act we can read that:
2. [Tasks of the minister]
Polish minister responsible for the informatization ensures the functioning of
the national trust infrastructure, which includes:
a register of trust service providers, hereinafter referred to as the
3) a national certification center.
Polish National Certification Centre tasks are included in Article 10 and this
article is crucial for the trust services providers, because the National
Certification Centre tasks include:
creation and issuing to qualified trust service providers the certificates for
the verification of qualified electronic signatures and electronic seals;
publication of the certificates;
publication of revoked certificates lists.
European Union legislator, considering the previous Member States’ experiences, modified the professionalization of electronic communication idea and passed the new law – REGULATION (EU) No 910/2014 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 July 2014 on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market and repealing Directive 1999/93/EC , so-called eIDAS Regulation.
The aim of this Regulation was to increase
confidence in the electronic trade market area in extent of e-business and
contact with public entities by the introduction of the unified IT solutions
legal frames for the entire European Union. These legal frames provide a
reliable determination of the natural persons’ and organizational units’
On 11th August 2021 Poland’s lower house of parliament passed an Amendment Act to the Act of 29 December 1992 on broadcasting (radio and television). This draft law aroused vast controversies and interest both among the Polish and international society. The draft law has been submitted to the Sejm (lower house of the Polish parliament) at the beginning of July 2021 and after one month the Amendment Act was passed by the Sejm and has been conveyed to the Senate (the higher house of Polish parliament) and President. Thus, the Sejm enactment was only the first instance of the legislative process, now the Senate will get on the Act.
To see the legislation path in Sejm: https://www.sejm.gov.pl/sejm9.nsf/PrzebiegProc.xsp?nr=1389
we move to the Amendment Act itself, at first we will begin by outlining the
general legal frames of the Broadcasting Act.
LAW – POLISH REGULATIONS
The bitcoin currency has been experiencing its peak
moments for a long time. Many consider bitcoin to be an easy way to earn money,
and others consider it to be the “currency of the future”.
Unfortunately, this view may be in future verified, as can be seen on the
example of the Republic of El Salvador.
On September 7, 2021, El Salvador officially adopted
bitcoin as an official and legal tender, making the cryptocurrency an accepted means of exchange
for goods and services. The euphoria and optimism related to the changes did
not last long, because on the same day, there was a huge drop in the value of
bitcoin. Within moments on Tuesday, September 7, bitcoin’s value plunged 17%
and ended its decline on Wednesday by around 10%. Other digital assets also fell.
According to Kraken (the cryptocurrency exchange in general), Cardano’s token
(ADA) and the second largest cryptocurrency, Ether, fell 18% and around 13%
respectively. (As of September 8 at 5:00 p.m.).
transfer agreements as well as investment agreements are often accompanied by
source code escrow agreements used to secure the IP rights to the software.
The key of
programs and software is the source code. It is the fundamental component of a
computer program that is created by a programmer. The source code should be written using a
human-readable programming language – usually plain text. The main goal of it
is to set exact rules and specifications for the computer that can be translated
into the machine’s language.
What is source code escrow?
Sometimes it happens that even if special
software tailored to one’s needs is created by a professional company, problems
may arise. The investor needs to make every effort to protect company in the
event that the contractor’s company ceases to exist, for example because of its
bankruptcy or liquidation. In such cases, the solution to secure the transfer
of ownership of the source code is to put in place source code escrow
agreement. This is a service that helps protect all parties involved in a
software licence by having a neutral, independent third party escrow agent hold
the source code.
Main principles of source code escrow