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Patent has its limitations, which are given in article 69 of the Polish Industrial Property Law. In our article we focused on two of them: research exemption and Bolar exemption, which are provided respectively in article 69 paragraph 1.3 “applying an invention in activities related to research and experiment for the purposes of analysis and teaching” and paragraph 1.4 “exploiting an invention to the extent necessary with a view to perform actions which are legally required to obtain an entry into a register or a licence, being a precondition for admitting certain products into trade given their purpose, in particular medicinal products”.

The article was prepared by our law firm and it discussess patent and patent exemptions, differences between research exemption and Bolar exemption, the relationship between commercialization of research and research exemption, as well as two ways of carrying out research on the basis of the research exemptions.