The Polish Office of Competition and Consumer Protection is an antitrust institution next to which one cannot pass by indifferently. Its functioning on the Polish market is motivated by many reasons, consumer protection issues being one of them. Polish consumer protection proceedings are discussed by Paweł Dyrduł, associate lawyer from KG Legal Kiełtyka Gładkowski Professional Partnership based in Cracow.
In case of a child abduction to Poland the first step to be taken is to file an application for the return of the child, under the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, under the Polish Family Code and Polish Civil Procedure Act.
Such an application is recognized by the competent authorities (courts or administrative bodies) of the country to which the child was abducted or detained. In Poland it will be the court where the child resides with the parent.
KG Legal, Polish law firm specialising in cross border family cases and acting for foreigners before the Polish courts prepared a presentation on child abduction to Poland. You can READ it or you can WATCH it.
New systems of rewarding, motivating and building employee loyalty are raising the general interest of entrepreneurs in Poland. One of such instruments is the notional share that is gaining popularity in the Polish market. Its essence and application possibilities are discussed by Pawel Dyrduł, lawyer from law office KG Legal Kiełtyka Gładkowski Professional Partnership with its registered office in Krakow
Expenses associated with running a business
Running a business involves the expenses, most commonly in the form of employee salaries. Bearing in mind the increase of these costs and also increase in tax rates, entrepreneurs are undertaking various actions aimed at reducing costs. In short, entrepreneurs are looking for savings in remuneration. However, fearing the loss of qualified staff or a decrease in the efficiency of their work, management boards of companies do not decide to lower wages. What comes with the help to reach their purpose – namely to keep the employees attached – is a financial instrument called notional share.
Bearing in mind the universality of international transactions and the risks that entrepreneurs face, the letter should pay attention to risk-reducing methods offered by banks. Paweł Dyrduł, associate lawyer from the law firm KG Legal Kiełtyka Gładkowski Professional Partnership based in Krakow, discusses the instrument of the letter of credit as a form of payment as well as the form of limiting the risk involved with transactions.
The essence of international trade
Progressive globalization has imposed on domestic companies – even on local ones – relationships with other international companies. Examples of such a connection, which may be either direct or indirect, include: competition with foreign entities, adaptation of manufactured products to international standards, the use of developed and implemented technological and management solutions.
An international commercial transaction is a transaction involving a cross-border element, so it comes down to transactions between entities based in different countries. Foreign trade can be considered in two perspectives: narrow and broad. In the narrow sense, the subject of foreign trade is material goods. Broad sense includes, for example, current and assets and credit turnovers, purchase of goods and intangible services.